• the concepts of urban hierarchy, central place, threshold population, sphere of influence and range of goods;
• lower and higher order functions and services; and
• lower and higher order centres.
Urban Structure and Patterns [4 hours]
• internal structure and patterns of urban settlements: land use zones; concept of urban profile; and factors influencing the
morphological structure of a city;
• models of urban structure, such as multiple-nuclei model, the modern American-western city, the Third World city and the
South African city; and
• changing urban patterns and land use in South African cities.