Informal Sector [4 hours] • concept and characteristics of informal sector employment; • reasons for high informal sector employment in South Africa; • challenges facing South Africa’s informal sector (Case studies to illustrate the above in the South African context)

Structure of the Economy [3 hours] • economic sectors (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary); • economic sectors’ contribution to the South African economy: value and employment; and • use of statistical and graphical information.

• how site and situation affect the location of rural settlements; • classification of rural settlements according to pattern and function; • reasons for different shapes of settlements: round, linear, T-shaped and cross-road; and • land use in rural settlements.