Energy Management in South Africa • South Africa’s changing energy needs; • energy management, towards greener economies and sustainable life styles: responsibilities of governments, businesses and individuals.
Non-conventional Energy Sources • solar energy – examples from South Africa and the world; • wind energy – examples from South Africa and the world; • future of non-conventional energy in South Africa; and • possible effects of using more non-conventional energy on the South African economy and the environment.
Conventional Energy Sources and their Impact on the Environment • maps and graphs to show thermal, hydro, and nuclear energy production in South Africa; • thermal electricity generation using coal – outline of principles and processes; • the impact of coal mining and thermal power stations – environmental despoliation, solid waste, waste gases and rain;… Read More »
Soil and Soil Erosion • how soils are formed; • soil as a resource; • causes of soil erosion: human, animal, physical, and past and present; • evidence of soil erosion in South Africa; • effects of soil erosion on people and the environment; and • management strategies to prevent and control soil erosion.
Using Resources • the relationship between resources and economic development; • exploitation and depletion of resources; and • concepts of sustainability and sustainable use of resources.
Concept of mass movements: Introduction (Note the word landslide is used instead of mass movement) Physical Causes And Consequences Of Mass Movement from tudorgeog Kinds of mass movements: Soil creep, Solifluction, landslides, rock falls and mud flows, and slumps, and The impact of mass movements on people and the environment Soil Creep: Solifluction: Landslides: … Read More »
Overview of South Africa’s topography. Types of slopes. Slope elements: crest, cliff (scarp slope, free face), talus (debris, scree slope) and pediment. Characteristics of the slope elements: crest, cliff, talus and pediment. Slope development over time. The concept of slope retreat.
Topography Associated with Massive Igneous Rocks: Batholiths, laccoliths, lopoliths, dykes and sills Batholiths Laccoliths Dykes Sills Characteristics and processes associated with the development of: Granite domes Tors
Characteristics and processes associated with the development of: Scarp and Dip Slopes Cuesta Homoclinal ridge Hogsback Cuesta basin and Cuesta dome Utilization of these landscapes by people.