The Concept of Development
Terminology associated with development:
- Developed country
Countries with an economic base built largely on manufacturing and technology rather than agriculture.
- Developing country
A non-industrialized poor country that is seeking to develop its resources by industrialization.
- More economically developed countries (MEDCs)
A highly industrialized country characterized by significant technological development, high per capita income, and low population growth rates. Examples of such countries include the United States, Canada, Japan, and many countries in Europe.
- Less economically developed countries (LEDCs)
Country characterized by minimal industrialization, low technological development, low per capita income, and high population growth rates. Many of these countries are found in Asia, Africa, and Central and South America.
- Industrialised countries
Countries whose economy is based on Industry
The concept of development:
- Economic development
An increase in living standards, improvement in self-esteem needs and freedom from oppression as well as a greater choice.
- Social development
Social development is about putting people at the centre of development.This means a commitment that development processes need to benefit people, particularly but not only the poor, but also a recognition that people, and the way they interact in groups and society, and the norms that facilitates such interaction, shape development processes. http://www.indsocdev.org/defining-social-development.html
- Sustainable development
Sustainable development (SD) refers to a mode of human development in which resource use aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for generations to come.
- Appropriate scale
- Spatial aspects
Gross national product (GNP) is the market value of all the products and services produced in one year by labour and property supplied by the residents of a country.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all officially recognized final goods and services produced within a country in a given period of time. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country’s standard of living.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income indices to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
The Gini coefficient is a number between 0 and 1, where 0 corresponds with perfect equality (where everyone has the same income) and 1 corresponds with perfect inequality (where one person has all the income—and everyone else has zero income).
- Life expectancy
The number of years that one is expected to live as determined by statistics.
- Infant mortality
Infant mortality is the death of a child less than one year of age. Childhood mortality is the death of a child before its fifth birthday. National statistics tend to group these two mortality rates together.